Solution Focused Therapy
Founded by Steve de Shazer and Insoo Berg. This therapy focuses on goals the client wants to achieve in counseling, rather than the problem. This approach does not focus on the past, but instead focuses on the present and future. The client is asked to envision their preferred future. The counselor then helps them set goals to work towards their desired future.
Strengths Based Counseling and Positive Thinking
Founder Martin Seligman. This therapy focuses on what is going
right or the strengths in a person’s life. The counselor and counselee work together to find past and present successes and use these to address the challenges being faced. Instead of projecting what can go wrong the client is encouraged to focus on what can go right. They are taught to see a new perspective. Assets identified include: physical health, social support, emotional resilience, spiritual outlook, vocational/financial, intellectual/giftedness.
Founded by Orval Mowrer. This is a therapeutic process where the counselee becomes involved in the process of counseling by confession, honesty, openness and restitution. This process is usually used to rid oneself of guilt from the past.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Founded by Aaron T. Beck. Cognitive behavior seeks to help the client overcome problems by identifying and changing dysfunctional Thinking, behavior and emotional responses. This therapy challenges and questions usually–unquestioned thoughts that are distorted, unrealistic and unhelpful. In this process the counselor helps the client change his/her wrong beliefs, distorted thinking and wrong behavior. Treatment is based on learning positive, true and right ways to think and behave. Gods Word is used as the standard for truth. Once wrong thinking and behavior has been changed the feelings will follow.
This therapy focuses on the whole person – physical, psychological and spiritual. Man is viewed as the creation of God with the capacity to know and fellowship with Him. Wholeness is rooted in man’s relationship to Jesus Christ. The counselor uses agape love (warmth, genuineness and empathy) to bring about healing in this therapeutic relationship. The counselor uses human and divine resources available to bring about renewal (new birth) healing, wholeness and maturity to the counselee. The counselor draws upon the divine resources of: the divine agape love of God, the Holy Spirit, fasting, prayer, the Bible the person and work of Jesus Christ. The counselor also uses natural recourses to help the counselee: family, friends, professional people, testing and assessments, different settings and counseling methods. Agape therapy often uses a contract in which specific goals are agreed upon. Agape therapy is interested in movement, action and growth.
Meaning in Life Therapy
Founder Viktor Frankl. This therapy approach appeals to those who are in search of meaning and answers to deep, personal questions, “the ultimate questions” such as: Why am I here? Why is there suffering? Is this all there is to life? This approach is well suited for those who are attempting to clarify their own ideas/theories and beliefs. The theory is also well suited for those who are facing personal adversity or change. This approach is appropriate for those who feel at the edge of existence, including the terminally ill and those who have been contemplating suicide. This approach is also valid for those who are just beginning a new phase in life in some way. A Christian perspective is used in this therapy.